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cost of refractory materials journal

  • Presidential address: How cool are refractory materials?

    2021-5-22 · Hard materials that are included in the scope of this journal are defined as materials with hardness values higher than 1000 kg/mm 2, primarily intended for applications as manufacturing tools or wear resistant components in mechanical systems. Thus they encompass carbides, nitrides and borides of metals, and related compounds.

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  • International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard

    2021-5-22 · Hard materials that are included in the scope of this journal are defined as materials with hardness values higher than 1000 kg/mm 2, primarily intended for applications as manufacturing tools or wear resistant components in mechanical systems. Thus they encompass carbides, nitrides and borides of metals, and related compounds.

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  • Shaped Refractory Materials Market ... - Express Journal

    The research report on Shaped Refractory Materials market delivers an exhaustive analysis of this business space while offering significant information pertaining to the factors that are affecting the revenue generation as well as the industry growth.

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  • Evaluation of Cost Effectiveness of Onibode Fire-Clay for ...

    2015-8-26 · These refractory materials play a very significant role in the high temperature environments, especially, in furnace linings and construction and other applications. They have wide applications in iron and steel plants, foundries, cement factories, petrochemical industries, etc. The cost of the raw materials, processing and cost of

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  • Int. Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials

    2020-11-29 · 138 Q. Zhou, P. Chen Int. Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials 52 (2015) 137–142 The relationship between the preheating temperature and final densities is shown in Fig. 4.

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  • Combustion synthesis of refractory and hard

    2013-7-1 · In the family of refractory and hard materials, nitrides and carbides are two important members. Combustion synthesis of nitride and carbide powders was usually carried out in N 2 or Ar atmosphere. In 1994, Tsuchida et al. reported the formation of AlN after combustion of (Al + C) powder mixture in air .Similar phenomena were observed later in other powders such as La, (Al + Zr–Al alloy), …

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  • Materials | Free Full-Text | Fabrication of Refractory ...

    Research has proven the nature of additives such as MgO in the fabrication of refractory materials and promoted their utilization in various applications [].The use of MgO and AlF 3 ·3H 2 O, with fly ash as a raw material, in the production of refractories is promising considering their easy availability and production costs. Fly ash is a powdered raw material that can be directly mixed as a ...

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  • Evaluation of Cost Effectiveness of Onibode Fire-Clay

    2015-8-31 · In establishing a plant or factory, the cost-benefit analysis is needed to determine the viability for such financial investment on the project. In this paper, the cost establishing a factory of 200,000 bricks per annum capacity, for the production of high quality refractory bricks from locally available raw materials in Nigeria was evaluated.

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  • Facile Route for Preparing Refractory Materials from ...

    2019-5-26 · The feasibility of a facile technological route to preparation of refractory materials from a ferronickel slag with the addition of sintered magnesia was verified in this study based on the thermodynamics analysis and the experimental exploration of the effect of the sintered magnesia addition on the phase transformation of ferronickel slag during the sintering process. For the first time, the ...

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  • FURNACES AND REFRACTORIES - Modern Eq

    2019-9-4 · Refractory chamber constructed of insulating materials to retain heat at high operating temperatures. Hearth to support or carry the steel, which consists of refractory materials supported by a steel structure, part of which is water-cooled. Burners that use liquid or gaseous fuels to raise and maintain the temperature in the chamber.

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  • Combustion joining of refractory materials:

    Refractory materials such as carbon possess properties that make joining them difficult. In this work, bonding of a carbon–carbon composite is achieved by employing self-sustained, oxygen-free, high-temperature combustion reactions. ... Journal of Materials Research, Volume 23, Issue 1, January 2008, pp. 160 ... materials. Even with suitable ...

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  • CALDERYS INDIA REFRACTORY ISSUES AND CHALLENGES

    The paper discusses how choosing a refractory should be seen as if it were minimising a cost function. ... Some features of the site may not work correctly. Corpus ID: 115068612. The cost impact of refractory selection @article{Petrus1998TheCI, title={The cost impact of refractory selection}, author={C. Petrus}, journal={World cement}, year ...

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  • Int. Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials

    2010-11-26 · Abstract. World demand for refractory products—heat-resisting ceramic materials used in metal refining, glass making, and other high-temperature industrial applications—will be slowing down considerably from an annual rate of 10.8 percent during 2002–07 to 3.5 percent during 2007–12.

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  • FURNACES AND REFRACTORIES - Modern Eq

    2015-10-28 · refractory solutions in a cost effective manner and providing quality products and solutions. ... temperatures, in various types of kilns and furnaces. Refractory materials are used to provide refractory lining in furnaces, kilns, incinerators, and reactors. ... abrasions and chemical corrosions, slag . AIMA Journal of Management & Research ...

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  • The cost impact of refractory selection | Semantic

    The paper discusses how choosing a refractory should be seen as if it were minimising a cost function. ... Some features of the site may not work correctly. Corpus ID: 115068612. The cost impact of refractory selection @article{Petrus1998TheCI, title={The cost impact of refractory selection}, author={C. Petrus}, journal={World cement}, year ...

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  • Int. Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials

    2016-1-12 · cost requires solution. In this aspect, the alternative binder (Fe,Co,Ni), whichreplacesat leastaportionof CobyFeorNi,isof growinginterest in the preparation of hardmetals [6–10]. As the liquid-phase sintering procedure is applied to densify hardmetals at temperatures above 1200 °C, driving the materials to

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  • Int. Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials

    2013-4-10 · Int. Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials 36 (2013) 116–121 ⁎ Corresponding author at: Malayer University, Iran. Tel.: +98 851 2232346; fax: +98 851 2221977.

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  • Refractory Materials | Scientific.Net

    The mullite-corundum refractory materials with well-dispersed needle-like mullite formed in-situ were prepared. Through studying the effect of different sintering temperatures on the performances of the as-fabricated mullite-corundum refractory materials, it was concluded that the appropriate sintering temperature was 1450 °C.

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  • International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard

    The International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials (IJRMHM) publishes original research articles concerned with all aspects of refractory metals and hard materials. Refractory metals are defined as metals with melting points higher than 1800 °C.

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  • Combustion synthesis of refractory and hard

    Combustion synthesis is widely used for preparing various refractory and hard materials, including alloys, intermetallics, ceramics, and cermets. The unique reaction condition in combustion synthesis with extremely-high temperature and fast heating/cooling rate offers the products interesting microstructures and superior mechanical properties.

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  • Fabrication of sustainable insulation refractory ...

    2019-5-1 · For refractory materials, phonons and photons are the key media for thermal conductivity, and their contribution depends on the temperature mainly. At low temperatures (<300 °C) energy flow in materials mainly occurs via lattice vibrations (phonons) at speed of sound and significantly decreased to a lower value at higher temperatures, where ...

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  • Cost-Effective and Sustainable Preparation of Porous ...

    2020-11-2 · The preparation of porous mullite-based ceramics (PMCs) suffers from the pollution of fluorinated catalysts and high cost and large consumption of additives. The volatilization method for MoO3 recovery from industrial Mo calcine has demerits of low recovery efficiency and high requirements for equipment and waste treatments. Herein, this work presents a new strategy to co-produce pure …

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  • Therapeutic Options in Docetaxel-Refractory

    2013-9-30 · synthesis exhibits the advantages of short processing time, less energy consumption, and lower cost, thus providing a more efficient way to produce refractory and hard materials. This article reviews recent progress in combustion synthesis of refractory and hard materials, with an emphasis

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  • Int. Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials

    2013-4-10 · Conversion of W 2C to WC phase during mechano-chemical synthesis of nano-size WC–Al 2O 3 powder using WO 3–2Al–(1+x)C mixtures M. Sakaki a,⁎, M.Sh. Bafghi b, J. Vahdati Khaki c, Q. Zhang d, F. Saito d a Department of Materials Engineering, Malayer University, Malayer, Iran b School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Narmak, …

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  • The Journal of Refractory Innovations - RHI Magnesita

    2020-12-17 · The Journal of Refractory Innovations 2020 Published by RHI Magnesita GmbH, Vienna, Austria Chief Editor Gerald Gelbmann Executive Editors Thomas Drnek, Christoph Eglsäer, Mateus Vargas Garzon, Thomas Mathew, Felipe Nonaka, Ravikumar Periyasamy, Diane Taylor, Heinz Telser, Karl-Michael Zettl Raw Materials Expert David Wappel

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  • Ladle Furnace Refractory Lining: A review

    2016-7-12 · 2.1. REFRACTORY MATERIALS Refractories are heat resistant materials used in almost all processes involving high temperatures and/or corrosive environment. These are typically used to insulate and protect industrial furnaces and vessels due to their excellent resistance to heat, chemical attack and mechanical damage.

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  • International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard

    The International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials (IJRMHM) publishes original research articles concerned with all aspects of refractory metals and hard materials. Refractory metals are defined as metals with melting points higher than 1800 °C.

    Get Price
  • International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard

    International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials Publication Information. Title. International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials [English] ISSNs. Print: 0263-4368. URL. ... cost-effective access to the UK's richest collection of digital content: ...

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  • Recent advances in silica-alumina refractory: A review

    2019-3-20 · materials are supposed to be resistant to heat and are to different degrees of mechanical stress and strain, cor-from liquids andgases, mechanical abrasion at high temperature [1–8]. Different types of refractory materials can be synthesized according to the nature of the raw materials …

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  • Cost-Benefit Analysis - Articles - Scientific Research ...

    2012-6-21 · Open Journal of Accounting Vol.2 No.2,April 25, 2013 DOI: 10.4236/ojacct.2013.22008 3,669 Downloads 5,913 Views Citations. Evaluation of Cost Effectiveness of Onibode Fire-Clay for Production of High Quality Refractory Bricks

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  • An Introduction to the Types of ... - Materials

    2002-5-10 · Monolithic refractory is the term normally used to refer all unshaped refractory products. The word “monolithic” is derived from the word monolith meaning “big stone.” These are materials that are incorporated into some form of suspension that eventually harden to form a solid mass.

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  • Roadmap on metasurfaces - IOPscience

    2019-7-1 · The lower real-part of the permittivity and the higher losses of refractory materials compared to noble metals are usually compensated with gap-plasmon structures. Pt was explored as a candidate for TPV emitters, with a Pt disk resonator and an alumina spacer which can withstand heating cycles of up to 650 °C [ 79 ].

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  • Cost Allocation of Operational Materials for an Alloy and ...

    2014-6-12 · Total Cost at the melting shop is the sum of the direct variable cost and the process cost. Direct variable cost components include all the raw and operational materials which can be directly allocated to a particular steel grade without any ambiguity. However, operational materials …

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  • Exploring the Use of Kenyan Diatomite As A Source Of ...

    2017-10-18 · materials. This research focuses on the use of Kenyan diatomite for the manufacture of refractory materials. High quality refractory at a cheaper cost is the main requirement because cost of refractory adds into the cost of products. Diatomite also known as Diatomaceous earth is a naturally occurring, soft, siliceous sedimentary

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  • Refractory metals as structural materials for fusion high ...

    2019-9-29 · materials under consideration, giving manufacture to end-of-life performance. The collection of neutron irradiated data for all candidate materials is, however, both cost and time prohibitive if commercial fusion is to be achieved, and so strategic pre-selection is required to direct targeted irradiation campaigns.

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  • FURNACES AND REFRACTORIES - Modern Eq

    2019-9-4 · Refractory chamber constructed of insulating materials to retain heat at high operating temperatures. Hearth to support or carry the steel, which consists of refractory materials supported by a steel structure, part of which is water-cooled. Burners that use liquid or gaseous fuels to raise and maintain the temperature in the chamber.

    Get Price
  • Refractory Material Selection for Steelmaking | Wiley

    2021-5-22 · Refractory Material Selection forSteelmaking is the ultimate guide to finding ideal answers to these questions. By following the step-by-step instructionspaired with detailed explanations and full-color diagramsreaders will be able to critically select the materials that are most appropriate for them.

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  • Recent advances in silica-alumina refractory: A review

    2019-3-20 · materials are supposed to be resistant to heat and are to different degrees of mechanical stress and strain, cor-from liquids andgases, mechanical abrasion at high temperature [1–8]. Different types of refractory materials can be synthesized according to the nature of the raw materials …

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  • Fabrication of Refractory Materials from Coal Fly Ash ...

    2020-8-6 · materials Article Fabrication of Refractory Materials from Coal Fly Ash, Commercially Purified Kaolin, and Alumina Powders Saidu Kamara 1,2, Wei Wang 1,2,* and Chaoqian Ai 1,2 1 Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Water Resources and Environment, Chang’an University, Xi’an 710054, China; [email protected] (S.K.); [email protected] (C.A.)

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  • A systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies ...

    2017-10-3 · This systematic review aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of treatment strategies for IBD. Materials and methods A systematic literature search was performed in March 2017 to identify economic evaluations of pharmacological and surgical interventions, for adults diagnosed with Crohn’s disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC).

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  • Dose-escalation strategy in refractory metastatic ...

    2021-2-4 · Dose-escalation strategy in refractory metastatic colorectal cancer: A change in terms of cost-effectiveness Jacopo Giuliani, Francesco Fiorica, Giovanni Ponturo, Maurizio Azzurro, Andrea Ruzzenente, and Andrea Bonetti

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  • About: International Journal of Materials Science and ...

    International Journal of Materials Science and Applications is an Open Access journal accessible for free on the Internet. With Open Access, Science Publishing Group (SciencePG) allows us to distribute knowledge more widely and at a lower cost than was previously possible.

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